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1. Integrated Vector Management: Controlling Vectors of Malaria and Other Insect Vector Borne Diseases
Graham Matthews
ISBN: 978-0-470-65966-3
248 pages
October 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

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 Description

Diseases transmitted by insects continue to have a major impact on human populations. Malaria, dengue, onchocerciasis, sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis all adversely affect man. Malaria is one of the most important causes of child mortality and reduces economic development in many countries, with agricultural productivity often greatly reduced, as many vectors are active in the wet season favourable for crop production. Vector control is crucial to reduce the extent to which drugs are needed to treat the diseases, as the parasite can become resistant, or the drugs are often too expensive for those living in rural areas and urban slums most affected by these diseases.

Chemical control of vectors is often the only method that can reduce vector populations in a disease epidemic, but with vectors developing resistance to insecticides, there is increasing awareness that a single control method is often insufficient and also that chemical control must be integrated where possible with other control measures.

In Integrated Vector Management, Graham Matthews covers the main chemical methods of vector control, including the use of indoor residual spraying, space treatments, the use of treated bed nets and larviciding, but also stresses the importance of drainage schemes and improvement of houses to prevent access of indoor vectors, techniques that have largely been responsible for reducing the risk of vector borne diseases in Europe and the USA. This book combines practical information from successful vector control programmes, including early use of DDT, and recent research into a vital resource for all those now involved in combating insect vector borne diseases.

Integrated Vector Management is an essential tool, not only for medical entomologists and those directly involved in government health departments, but also for all those who provide the skills and management needed to operate successful area-wide vector management programmes. Libraries in all universities and research establishments world-wide, where biological sciences, medicine and agriculture are studied and taught should have multiple copies of this important book.

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgements

1 Introduction

Insect vectors

Distribution of vectors

Mosquitoes

Anopheles spp.

Aedes spp.

Culex spp.

Flies

Simulium spp.

Glossina spp. tsetse flies

Phlebotomine sand flies

Musca domestica and other synanthropic spp.

Other vectors

Triatomine bugs

Chemical control

Hazard and toxicity

Toxicity

Insecticides

WHO recommendations

Formulations

Packaging and storage

Waste disposal

Conclusion

References

2 Indoor Residual Spraying

Equipment for indoor residual spraying

Spray volume

Insecticides

Operator exposure

Resident exposure

Implementation of indoor residual spraying

Village intervention teams

Planning programmes

Insecticides

Equipment required

Storage

Training

Monitoring

Environmental assessment

Evaluation

Economics

Conclusion

References

3 Space Treatment

Requirements for space treatments

Equipment for space treatments

Portable equipment

Mist treatments

Vehicle mounted equipment

Aerial application

Insecticides

Planning

Assessment of space sprays

Monitoring

Conclusion

References

4 Bed Nets and Treated Clothing

Material

Mesh size

Shape

Insecticide

Insecticide impregnation

Impact of washing nets

Distribution of nets

Trial data

Operational use

Treated clothing

Impregnated sheeting

Conclusion

References

5 Larviciding

Larvicide application

Mosquito control

Oils

Insecticides

Application of mosquito larvicides

Knapsack spraying

Motorised equipment

Aerial application for mosquito control

Application of aerial sprays

Application of granules

Ground application

Aerial application

Monitoring

Black flies

Insecticides

Aerial application of larvicides for black fly control

Boat application

Applications in small streams

Monitoring

Conclusion

References

6 Integrated Vector Management

Cultural controls

House design

Drainage and water management schemes

Personal protection

Impregnated clothing

Insecticide treated bed nets

Repellents

Barrier treatments

Implementation of IVM

An example of IVM at Copper mines in Zambia

Costs

Development of new technology

Conclusion

References

7 Other Insects – Flies, Cockroaches and Bed Bugs

Flies

Refuse dumps

Space treatments

Mist treatments

Cockroaches

Traps

Sprays

Baits

Bed bugs

Conclusion

References

8 Looking Ahead

New insecticides?

Can insecticides with new modes of action be developed?

Insecticide resistance

Bio-pesticides

Spray technology

Electrostatic spraying?

Different sprayers?

Different nozzles?

Using a paint

Innovative application technique

Genetically modified mosquitoes

Attractants

Urbanisation

Economics

Conclusion

References

Appendix A: Calibration

Appendix B: Conversion Tables

Index

Author Information

Graham Matthews is Emeritus Professor of Pest Management at Imperial College, London, UK and, since 1972, he has advised the World Health Organization on the equipment used for vector control. Over the last decade he has also been Technical Director of the NGO, Yaounde Initiative Foundation and has been directly involved in vector control in Cameroon.
2. Apicomplexan Parasites: Molecular Approaches toward Targeted Drug Development

Katja Becker (Editor), Paul M. Selzer (Series Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-32731-7

550 pages

February 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

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 Description

This handbook is the first dealing with the discovery of drugs directed against apicomplexan parasites. Amongst others, this group of endoparasites includes the causative agents of Malaria, Toxoplasmosis, and Babesiosis, the latter occurring mainly in animals. Written by renowned scientific experts from academia and industry, the book focuses on currentdrug development approaches for all apicomplexan diseases making it appealing to a large audience, ranging from research labs in academia to the human and veterinarian pharmaceutical industry. This work is the second volume of the new book series 'Drug Discovery in Infectious Diseases', edited by Prof. Dr Paul M. Selzer.

Table of Contents

SCREENING, BIOINFORMATICS, CHEMOINFORMATICS, AND DRUG DESIGN
Drug Discovery Approaches towards Anti-Parasitic Agents
(Andreas Rohwer, Richard J. Marhöfer, Conor R. Caffrey and Paul M. Selzer)
New Bioinformatic Strategies against Apicomplexan Parasites
(Thomas Dandekar and Ke Xiao)
Sorting Potential Therapeutic Targets in Apicomplexa
(Jan A. Hiss and Gisbert Schneider)
Alternatives to Drug Development in Apicomplexa
(Prof. Dr. Theo P.M. Schetters)

METABOLIC PATHWAYS AND PROCESSES ADDRESSED BY CURRENT DRUG DISCOVERY APPROACHES
The Energy Metabolism as an Antimalarial Drug Target
(Esther Jortzik and Katja Becker)
Polyamines in Apicomplexan Parasites
(Ingrid B. Müller, Robin Das Gupta, Kai Lüersen, Carsten Wrenger and Rolf D. Walter)
The Reducing Milieu of Parasitized Cells as a Target of Antimalarial Agents. Methylene Blue as an Ethical Drug
(Peter Meissner, Heike Adler, Karin Fritz-Wolf and R. Heiner Schirmer)
Lipids as Drug Targets for Malaria Therapy
(Henri J. Vial, Diana Penarete, Sharon Wein, Sergio Caldarelli, Laurent Fraisse and Suzanne Peyrottes)
Targeting Apicoplast Pathways in Plasmodium
(Snober S. Mir, Subir Biswas and Saman Habib)
Lipoic Acid Acquisition and Glutathione Biosynthesis in Apicomplexan Parasites
(Janet Storm, Eva-Maria Patzewitz and Sylke Müller)
Antimalarial Drugs and Molecules Inhibiting Hemozoin formation
(Uday Bandyopadhyay and Sumanta Dey)
Exploiting the Vitamin Metabolism of Apicomplexa as Drug Targets
(Carsten Wrenger and Ingrid B. Müller)
Vitamin Biosynthetic Pathways, the PLP Synthase Complex, and the Potential for Drugging Protein-Protein Interaction
(Ivo Tews and Irmgard Sinning)
Targeting Prokaryotic Enzymes in the Eukaryotic Pathogen Cryptosporidium
(Suresh Kumar Gorla, Corey Johnson, Jihan Khan, Xin Sun, Lisa Sharling,
Boris Striepen and Lizbeth Hedstrom)
DRUG TARGETS IN APICOMPLEXAN PARASITES
Novel Apicomplexan Phosphatases and Immunophilins
as Domain-Specific Drug Targets
(Sailen Barik)
Dehydrogenases and enzymes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain as antiapicomplexan drug targets
(Kathleen Zocher, Stefan Rahlfs and Katja Becker)
Calcium-dependent protein kinases as drug targets in apicomplexan parasites
(Dominik Kugelstadt, Bianca Derrer, and Barbara Kappes)
Protein Acylation:
New Potential Targets for Intervention against Apicomplexa
(Joana M. Santos, Christian Hedberg and Dominique Soldati-Favre)
Drugs and Drug Targets in Neospora Caninum and Related Apicomplexans
(Joachim Müller, Norbert Müller and Andrew Hemphill)
COMPOUNDS
Subversive Substrates of Glutathione Reductases from P. Falciparum-infected Red Blood Cells as Antimalarial Agents
(Elisabeth Davioud-Charvet and Don Antoine Lanfranchi)
Ferroquine: a Concealed Weapon (Christophe Biota, Bruno Pradinesb and Daniel Divec)
Current Aspects of Endoperoxides in Antiparasitic Chemotherapy
(Denis Matovu Kasozi, Stefan Rahlfs and Katja Becker)
Plasmodium Hsp90 as an Antimalarial Target
(G. Sridhar Prasad and Sailen Barik)
Drug Discovery against Babesia and Toxoplasma
(Mohamad Alaa Terkawi and Ikuo Igarashi)
Search for Drugs and Drug Targets against Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia caballi, and Babesia (Theileria) equi
(Sabine Bork-Mimm)
Orlistat: A Repositioning Opportunity as a Growth Inhibitor of Apicomplexan Parasites?
(Christian Miculka, Hon Tran, Thorsten Meyer, Anja R. Heckeroth, Stefan Baumeister, Frank Seeber and Paul M. Selzer)
Recent drug discovery against Cryptosporidium
(Jean-François Rossignol, Gilles Gargala, J. Edward Semple and Andrew V. Stachulski)

Author Information

Volume editor:
Prof. Dr. Katja Becker obtained her Academic Degree in Medicine at Heidelberg University. She carried out her doctoral-thesis as well as her Habilitation at the Biochemistry Centre, Heidelberg, before she obtained a Junior Group Leader Position at the Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Würzburg University. Since 2000 she holds the Chair of Nutritional Biochemistry at the Justus-Liebig University Giessen. Scientifically she focuses on the characterization of redox active proteins as drug targets. She has produced more than 170 scientific publications and received numerous scientific awards including the Carus Medal of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and the Leuckart Medal of the German Society for Parasitology. Since June 2009 she is a member of the Leopoldina.
Series Editor:
Prof. Dr. Paul M. Selzer studied Biology, Parasitology, and Biochemistry at the University of Tübingen, Germany, where he also received his PhD in Biochemistry. He spent three years in the parasitology and tropical disease laboratory of Prof. James H. McKerrow at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). During his professional career he worked as researcher and scientific manager for several pharmaceutical companies, being currently employed by Intervet Innovation GmbH, Germany, part of a leading Animal Health company. Dr. Selzer is also a visiting Professor and teacher in Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, and Chemoinformatics at the University of Tübingen, and holds an Honorary Professorship in the Department of Infection and Immunity at the University of Glasgow, UK.

 

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